[Abstract]: With the continuous development of economy and various technologies, the forging process has received more and more attention of the majority of people, and therefore it has become a technical discipline. Its rapid development has promoted the rapid development of China's machinery manufacturing industry. Therefore, in the future application of forging technology, relevant researchers must improve the research on the innovative application and development trend of forging technology in order to improve the application efficiency of forging technology and provide conditions for the further development of China's machinery manufacturing industry. This paper mainly discusses the application of various forging technologies and analyzes their application progress for reference in related research.
[Keywords]: Forging technology; Classification; Development
CLC number: TG31
1. Classification of forging technology
Forging technology has the advantages of high production efficiency and strong forging comprehensive performance in the production and processing of machine tool parts. Therefore, it is widely used in machinery manufacturing. In recent years, with the further in-depth study of forging technology by related technical personnel, the application and classification of forging technology have become more and more sophisticated, which has a direct impetus to improving the application efficiency of forging technology. According to different production tools, forging technology can be divided into the following three.
1.1 Free forging
This is a relatively simple forging technique. It mainly refers to the use of simpler tools for forging single or small batches of forgings. Forged forgings are relatively rough and are not suitable for use in precision mechanical equipment. However, this forging technique has higher forging efficiency and lower cost, and is suitable for forging a small number of workpieces;
1.2 Module forging
As the name implies, this forging technique utilizes the impact of pre-prepared modules and related hammers and other tools to form the required size and shape of the billet in the module to achieve the purpose of forging. This kind of forging technique is relatively free forging and its cost is obviously increased. Therefore, it is often used in the production of large-volume forgings.
1.3 Special Forging
For some special-performance machine tools, professional equipment and special forging techniques are required for forging purposes to achieve forging purposes. Special forging technology can only produce specific forgings, so it is more suitable for mass production of a certain type of forgings.
2. Progress of application of forging technology
2.1 Different forging techniques and their application
First, isothermal forging technology: This technology is mainly applied to forging aluminum alloy forgings, and has the advantages of easy forging process control, simple forging process, low forging deformation speed, uniform structure, and improved anti-deformation ability. At the same time, for forging materials The use efficiency is also high, and it is a forging technique with good application effect. In the process of applying isothermal forging technology, it is necessary to strictly control the temperature of forging according to the requirements of forging, and a special mold heating device is added to ensure that the temperature is constant and the forging process proceeds smoothly. China's isothermal forging technology began in the 1980s and has reached a relatively mature level after several decades of development. At present, China's application of isothermal forging technology can forge different forgings and make the forgings have better organizational uniformity and structural stability. At the same time, it can effectively improve the application efficiency of forgings and save materials.
Second, powder forging technology: This forging technology is mainly forging materials with powder as the main forging process of "powder-pressing-stripping-sintering-hot forging". After the above process, the dense forgings are finally formed. The application of powder forging technology has the advantages of full material utilization (utilization rate of 95% to 99%), high mechanical properties (it can effectively increase the internal density of forgings and further increase the rigidity of forgings, etc.), and the forgings have high precision (effectively controlling the size and performance of forgings Parameters, etc. to improve its accuracy) and so on. In addition, the powder forging technology has few application procedures and low cost, and is suitable for producing forged parts with complicated shapes and high performance requirements. At present, China's powder forging technology is mainly applied to forged gear parts, which can effectively improve the tooth root anti-fatigue strength and impact strength of gear forgings, and can also reduce the amount of gear processing and raw materials used, and the economic application of forging technology. The improvement of efficiency has a good promotion effect.
Third, the discontinuous connecting rod forging technology: This forging technique is mainly applied to the forging of the connecting rod, and the technical requirements are relatively high. The technical personnel are required to strictly control the amount of vanadium, manganese and nitrogen added to ensure the toughness and elongation of the forging. Sex and antioxidant properties. Temperature control is also an important work. The temperature required for this forging technique is in the range of 1235°C±15°C. If the temperature is too high, the connecting rod will expand and break off the dross. If the temperature is too low, the tensile performance of the connecting rod will decrease. The problem is that the technological process of the discontinuous breaking rod forging technology is simplified and the number of processes is small. The forged connecting rod has a compact structure and high quality, and is a connecting rod forging technique with a high application effect. The difficulty in the application of the discontinuous connecting rod forging technique in China is to control various process parameters, such as heating temperature control (forging temperature directly affects the tensile strength of forgings) and decarburization layer control (does not allow full decarburization of forgings, most of which are The decarburization of the connecting rod shaft is about 0.2mm, the decarburization time is controlled within 12S, so that the decarburization is exceeded), and the cooling temperature is controlled (the control of cooling temperature and speed is mainly to control the precipitation of iron element in the forging, so that The iron content is up to the standard to ensure the strength of the forgings, etc. to ensure the forging quality.
Fourth, crankshaft forging technology: The development of China's auto industry has increased the demand for crankshaft parts and also increased the requirements for crankshaft parts. In order to promote the development of the crankshaft processing industry, relevant technical personnel have increased the research on the crankshaft forging technology in order to be able to improve the forging efficiency and quality of the crankshaft parts and meet the development needs of China's automotive industry. The crankshaft forging technology is more complicated than other forging technologies. It requires a variety of more elaborate processes, such as heating by blanking, forging blanks and flattening, until pre-forging and final forging, and crankshaft forging is completed. Pre-production, after the need for forging parts trimming, twisting, adjusting accuracy and other processing, and finally through the straightening, stress relief, rust, inspection and other processes, in order to achieve the standard crankshaft parts, complete forging. When crankshaft forging technology is applied, the requirements for forging equipment are also high. With the development of science and technology, some forging factories have introduced computers to realize intelligent regulation and control, which has a good impetus for improving forging efficiency and quality.
2.2 Progress of Application of Forging Technology in China
With the development of forging technology, various forging processes are thinking in the direction of more precise and innovative development, and their application effects are gradually improving. Mass production of a variety of different performance, shape, and size mechanical tool components has become possible. .
First, precision module forging technology: This forging technology is proposed on the basis of common module forging technology. It is mainly to improve the precision of module forging to improve the precision and environmental protection of forgings. At present, there are three kinds of applications with good application prospects: flashless thermal module forging technology, flashless temperature module forging technology, and warm-to-cold compound forming forging technology. Due to different application conditions, the cost and performance of forged forgings are also different. There are slight differences.
Second, forging technology of large-scale forgings: With the development of society and economy, the demand for large-scale mechanical equipment has gradually increased. Therefore, relevant technical personnel have proposed the forging technology of large forgings in light of this situation, that is, the size of the forgings. With the increase of the weight of the steel ingot size and weight, and focus on the ingot interior structure loose, holes and other problems to solve the strategy, in order to improve the effect of large forgings forging. In addition, during the development of forging technology, it is also necessary to optimize the calculation method of forging speed and the forming process to improve the application efficiency of forging technology.
Third, multi-material forging technology: With the continuous emergence of various new materials, the raw materials that can be used for forgings are gradually increasing, which has an important role in promoting forging efficiency and quality, and promoting the strength of forgings. At present, the commonly used forging materials are mainly aluminum alloy materials, titanium alloy materials, magnesium alloys, etc. These alloy materials have the same important status as the precision forming of the alloy materials and the improvement of the quality of the forgings, and will be the future of forging. One of the main research questions in the process of technology development.
In summary, this article briefly introduces several forging technologies and their application methods, and analyzes the application of forging technology, hoping to provide reference for relevant technical personnel to promote the application efficiency of forging technology in China. It is believed that with the constant deepening of research by technical personnel and the continuous development of related science and technology, forging technology will surely be developed more rapidly, and the application of precision forging technology will become more and more widespread, providing further development for the development of machinery manufacturing. Effective help.